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卒中的风险

ID: ANH18209chis
医学动画文字记录:本视频将帮助你了解什么是卒中以及卒中的风险。通常情况下,称为动脉的血管将血液输送到大脑。大脑需要持续的血液流动来获得正常工作所需的氧气和营养物质。在卒中期间,也被称为脑攻击,血液流向大脑的部分已经停止。最常见的卒中类型被称为缺血性卒中。它可能发生在变窄的动脉中,一种叫做斑块的脂肪物质使动脉变窄。当被称为血栓性卒中的缺血性卒中发生时,斑块会破裂,形成血凝块,阻碍血液流向大脑。当另一种被称为栓塞性卒中的缺血性卒中发生时,血凝块在身体的另一个部位形成,并在血液中流动。如果它到达大脑附近或大脑内的动脉,就会阻碍血液流动。卒中时,通往大脑部分部位的动脉被堵塞,血液中的氧气和营养物质就无法到达这些脑细胞。细胞在几分钟内开始死亡。一种不太常见的卒中称为出血性卒中。当脆弱的血管破裂,血液渗透进入大脑时,就会发生这种情况。这会阻碍血液流向大脑,漏出的血液会对脑组织造成压力,从而损害脑组织。在短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)中,血栓阻碍了血液流向大脑。但它与其他类型的卒中不同,因为血栓会在短时间内破裂。短暂性脑缺血发作通常不会造成任何永久性损伤。高血压是各种类型卒中的主要危险因素。其他危险因素包括糖尿病、某些类型的心脏病、吸烟、高胆固醇,以及有短暂性脑缺血发作史。了解卒中发作时的迹象和症状是很重要的,包括:面部、胳膊和腿突然麻木或无力,特别是如果它发生在你身体的一侧,突然的混乱和说话困难或无法理解别人说的话,突然的一只或两只眼睛看东西困难,突然的头晕,失去平衡,或无法行走,以及突发严重的头痛。如果你认为自己或他人可能卒中了,请立即拨打急救电话。要了解更多关于卒中风险的信息,请咨询医生。

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