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甲型肝炎和乙型肝炎

ID: ANH13094chis
医学动画文字记录:如果患有甲型肝炎或乙型肝炎,肝脏会因为感染了甲肝病毒或乙肝病毒而发炎。肝脏是一个柔软、灵活的器官,有许多重要的功能。肝脏的功能部分叫做肝小叶。肝小叶过滤体内所有的血液。当血液通过时,肝小叶分解有害物质,清除细菌和衰竭的血细胞,形成控制出血的凝血因子。饭后,肝脏会储存营养,在身体需要的时候提供能量。肝脏也会产生一种叫做胆汁的物质。胆囊储存胆汁并将其释放到小肠,帮助消化食物中的脂肪。当人接触到病毒感染者的排泄物时,病毒就进入了身体,就会患上甲型肝炎。人可能通过食用受污染的食物或水,接触受感染的粪便(如换尿布时),或与受病毒感染的人发生无保护的性行为而接触病毒。当接触到病毒感染者的血液或其他体液时,病毒就进入了身体,人就会患上乙型肝炎。这可能是与感染者共用一个药物注射器造成的。可能接触到病毒的其他方式,包括与病毒感染者发生性行为,共用感染者使用过的剃须刀或牙刷等个人卫生用品,直接接触感染者的血液或体液,或母亲在分娩时将病毒传给婴儿。当甲肝或乙肝病毒进入肝脏时,它会侵入肝细胞并自我复制。作为回应,身体会派出免疫细胞攻击病毒和被病毒感染的肝细胞。结果,这些肝细胞会发炎,然后死亡。随着时间的推移,死亡和感染的肝细胞周围会形成瘢痕组织,阻止肝脏正常工作。如果有慢性乙肝,肝脏含有大量的瘢痕组织,称为肝硬化,它限制了血液流动,并导致肝脏永久性收缩和硬化。如果患有甲肝,医生不会给开具任何药物进行治疗,因为人的免疫细胞最终会找到并摧毁体内所有的甲肝病毒。如果患有乙肝,免疫系统通常会清除体内所有的乙肝病毒。在一些慢性乙肝患者中,特别是儿童,他们的免疫细胞无法清除所有的乙肝病毒。如果患有慢性乙型肝炎,而免疫系统不能完全消灭病毒,医生可能会给病人开抗病毒药物。如果患有严重的慢性乙型肝炎,医生可能会建议进行肝移植手术。

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