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痛风

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ID: ANH12070chis
医疗动画文字记录:痛风是一种关节炎症疾病,由体内尿酸过多引起。正常情况下,肝脏在体内代谢各种物质,包括嘌呤,这是在细胞和某些食物中发现的遗传物质的组成部分。当肝脏分解嘌呤时,就会产生一种叫做尿酸的废物。身体通过肾脏排出这些废物,肾脏将其从血液中清除。当肝脏产生过多的尿酸,或者肾脏没有从身体中清除足够的尿酸,过量的尿酸在血液中积累,会导致发生高尿酸血症。含咖啡因的饮料会通过增加尿液排出量来影响肾脏的废物清除功能,从而从身体中排除过多的水分,这种情况称为脱水。脱水会导致体液中尿酸浓度升高。当尿酸浓度从这些来源变得过高时,它就不能再溶解了。过量的尿酸开始在关节内形成针状晶体,最常见的是在大脚趾。尿酸晶体的形成导致炎症反应。免疫系统中的白细胞攻击尿酸晶体,导致关节疼痛和炎症,称为急性痛风发作。如果不及时治疗,尿酸水平升高可能会导致尿酸在关节周围形成块状沉积,称为痛风结节,造成额外的关节疼痛和外形毁损。治疗急性痛风发作的药物包括:预防或减轻关节炎症的秋水仙碱;用于减轻疼痛和炎症的非甾体抗炎药,以及类固醇类药物(如强的松)。治疗慢性痛风的药物包括促进尿酸排泄的药物,以及抑制身体产生尿酸的药物。改变生活方式可以预防痛风复发或慢性痛风,包括减少饮食中的红肉和贝类、限制酒精的摄入,这些嘌呤含量都很高,限制咖啡因饮料,定期锻炼,喝大量的水。

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