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乳腺癌进展与分期

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ID: ANS00365chis
医学动画文字记录:乳腺癌的分期是指疾病进展的程度。癌症的分期取决于几个因素,包括肿瘤的大小、是否有淋巴结转移、癌症是浸润性还是非浸润性的,以及癌症是否已经转移到乳腺以外的区域。0期乳腺癌被认为是非浸润性乳腺癌。没有证据表明癌细胞已经转移到乳腺导管或小叶以外的邻近组织。Ⅰ期被认为是浸润性乳腺癌的早期阶段。肿瘤的直径不超过2厘米,没有证据表明癌细胞已经转移到乳腺以外。Ⅱ期分为IIA和IIB两个亚期。IIA期是指肿瘤直径最大2厘米,已经转移到腋下淋巴结的浸润性乳腺癌,或直径2 ~ 5厘米,但没有转移到淋巴结的浸润性乳腺癌。IIB期稍有不同,肿瘤在2 ~ 5厘米,并已转移到腋下淋巴结。或者肿瘤大于5厘米,但还没有转移到腋下淋巴结。III期被认为是局部晚期癌症,分为IIIA、IIIB和IIIC三个亚期。IIIA期乳腺癌有两种主要情况:一个是肿瘤直径超过5厘米,但已经转移到腋下淋巴结,这些淋巴结彼此生长粘连,形成团块。癌细胞也可能已经转移到胸骨附近的淋巴结。IIIA期的第二种情况与此非常相似,只是肿瘤直径大于5厘米,腋下淋巴结没有相互粘连或与其他组织粘连。与其他分期不同,IIIB期肿瘤可以是任何大小,并已转移到乳房或胸壁的皮肤。这一期也可能发生乳房皮肤肿块或乳房肿胀。ⅢC期的肿瘤也可以是任何大小,但已经转移到锁骨上方或下方的淋巴结、胸壁和/或乳房皮肤。Ⅳ期被认为是远处转移癌,这意味着癌症已经转移到身体的其他器官和部位。

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