The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated major joint of the body. In a typical case of a dislocated shoulder, a strong force that pulls the shoulder outward (abduction) or extreme rotation of the joint pops the ball of the humerus out of the shoulder socket. Dislocation commonly occurs when there is a backward pull on the arm that either catches the muscles unprepared to resist or overwhelms the muscles. When a shoulder dislocates frequently, the condition is referred to as shoulder instability. A partial dislocation where the upper arm bone is partially in and partially out of the socket is called a subluxation.
The shoulder can dislocate either forward, backward, or downward. Not only does the arm appear out of position when the shoulder dislocates, but the dislocation also produces pain. Muscle spasms may increase the intensity of pain. Swelling, numbness, weakness, and bruising are likely to develop. Problems seen with a dislocated shoulder are tearing of the ligaments or tendons reinforcing the joint capsule and, less commonly, nerve damage. Doctors usually diagnose a dislocation by a physical examination, and x rays may be taken to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out a related fracture.
Doctors treat a dislocation by putting the ball of the humerus back into the joint socket--a procedure called a reduction. The arm is then immobilized in a sling or a device called a shoulder immobilizer for several weeks. Usually the doctor recommends resting the shoulder and applying ice three or four times a day. After pain and swelling have been controlled, the patient enters a rehabilitation program that includes exercises to restore the range of motion of the shoulder and strengthen the muscles to prevent future dislocations. These exercises may progress from simple motion to the use of weights.
After treatment and recovery, a previously dislocated shoulder may remain more susceptible to reinjury, especially in young, active individuals. Ligaments may have been stretched or torn, and the shoulder may tend to dislocate again. A shoulder that dislocates severely or often, injuring surrounding tissues or nerves, usually requires surgical repair to tighten stretched ligaments or reattach torn ones.
Sometimes the doctor performs surgery through a tiny incision into which a small scope (arthroscope) is inserted to observe the inside of the joint. After this procedure, called arthroscopic surgery, the shoulder is generally immobilized for about 6 weeks and full recovery takes several months. Arthroscopic techniques involving the shoulder are relatively new and many surgeons prefer to repair a recurrent dislocating shoulder by the time-tested open surgery under direct vision. There are usually fewer repeat dislocations and improved movement following open surgery, but it may take a little longer to regain motion.
Source: The National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Last reviewed: May 2001
Nucleus Medical Media Disclaimer of Medical and Legal Liability
Nucleus Medical Media ("Nucleus") does not dispense medical or legal advice, and the text, illustrations, photographs, animations and other information ("Content") available on this web site is for general information purposes only. As with any medical or legal issue, it is up to you to consult a physician or attorney for professional advice. YOU SHOULD NOT DISREGARD PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL OR LEGAL ADVICE BASED ON CONTENT CONTAINED ON THIS WEB SITE, NOR SHOULD YOU RELY ON THE CONTENT ON THIS WEB SITE IN PLACE OF PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL OR LEGAL ADVICE.
NUCLEUS DISCLAIMS ALL RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY FOR ANY COUNSEL, ADVICE, TREATMENT, DIAGNOSIS OR ANY MEDICAL, LEGAL OR OTHER INFORMATION, SERVICES OR PRODUCTS THAT YOU OBTAIN BASED ON VIEWING THE CONTENT OF THIS SITE. THE INFORMATION ON THIS WEB SITE SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED COMPLETE OR SUITABLE FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER.
Mature Content Disclaimer: Certain Content on this web site contains graphic depictions or descriptions of medical information, which may be offensive to some viewers. Nucleus, its licensors, and its suppliers disclaim all responsibility for such materials.