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Organic Molecules
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Organic molecules are compounds found in, or produced by living things. Each molecule contains two or more elements, including carbon. Carbon has four valence electrons and is able to bond with other elements that can contribute another four electrons to complete its outer shell. Carbon atoms can form long chains, or carbon backbones as a base for a variety of organic molecules. Carbon's ability to bond with itself and other elements, allow it to form complex molecules necessary for life, such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have a two to one ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen. For example, glucose has 12 hydrogen atoms, six carbon atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates are important energy sources for cells. Proteins are chains of amino acids. All amino acids consist of a central carbon atom connected to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group. The radical group differentiates each amino acid. Amino acids join together to form peptides. Longer chains of amino acids are called polypeptides. Groups of polypeptides join to form proteins. Proteins have a complex, coiled, and folded structure that determines their function. Proteins provide structural support, regulate the body, transport other molecules, aid in chemical reactions, fight foreign invaders, allow for contraction of muscles, and bind cells together. Lipids are organic molecules composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fatty acids are lipids consisting of a carboxyl group, a chain of hydrocarbons, and a methyl group. Triglycerides are three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule. Lipids are important for energy storage and thermal insulation in body fat. Nucleic acids are composed of repeating units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three segments, a monosaccharide, a carbon-nitrogen ring, and one or more phosphate groups. Nucleic acids such as DNA are important for storage and transmission of genetic information. ♪ [music] ♪
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