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Cervical Cancer Progression and Staging
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The staging of cervical cancer refers to the extent of the disease. Doctors stage the disease according to the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to nearby tissues or other organs of the body. Stage 0 is not considered invasive because the cancer cells are found only in the top layer of cells of the cervix. Stage 1A is considered invasive cancer because the microscopic tumor grows through the top layer of cells into the underlying cervical tissue and is three to five millimeters deep by 7 millimeters wide. Stage 1B cervical cancer has two scenarios. One, where the tumor still can only be seen with a microscope but is larger than five millimeters deep and seven millimeters wide. In the second scenario, for stage 1B the cancer can be seen without a microscope and is larger than 4 centimeters in diameter. In stage 2A the tumor spreads beyond the cervix to the upper 2/3 of the vagina but not to the tissues around the uterus. In stage 2B the cancer spreads to the tissues around the uterus. In stage 3A the tumor spreads to the lower third of the vagina. In stage 3B, the cancer spreads to the pelvic wall, the lining of the body wall cavity between the hips, or it may spread to the ureters, tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys to the bladder. If the flow of urine is blocked, the kidneys can become enlarged or stop working. In stage 4A tumor invades nearby pelvic organs such as the bladder or rectum and may spread to the pelvic lymph nodes. In stage 4B, the cancer spreads past the pelvic lymph nodes to other places in the body, such as the liver, intestines, or lungs.
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