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近距离放射治疗

ID: ANH13116chis
医疗动画文字记录:如果你患有某些类型的癌症,医生可能会建议近距离放射治疗,也称为体内放射治疗。体内细胞的生长和分裂是正常细胞周期的一部分。细胞核控制着这个过程。在每个细胞核内,称为DNA的遗传物质包含着指导这一过程的指令。有时细胞的DNA会受损。通常情况下,DNA的反应要么是自我修复,要么是发出指令导致细胞死亡。然而,当发生癌症时,细胞DNA中指导细胞分裂的部分被破坏了。当这些部分受损时,DNA无法自我修复或导致细胞死亡。相反,未修复的DNA会导致细胞生长并不受控制地分裂成更受损的细胞,称为癌细胞。当癌细胞增殖并取代正常细胞时,肿瘤就形成了。近距离放射治疗能够治疗以下器官的癌症:乳房;消化系统器官,如食管、肝脏下面的胆道;女性生殖系统器官,如子宫、子宫颈、阴道;男性前列腺;直肠;皮肤;头部和颈部区域;肺部。近距离放射治疗是将放射性物质放置在癌症附近的一种癌症治疗方法。根据治疗方法不同,将放射性金属丝、放射性丝带或称为粒子的颗粒直接植入肿瘤或放在肿瘤附近。近距离放射治疗的辐射通过对癌细胞的DNA造成巨大损伤来杀死癌细胞。随着细胞停止分裂和死亡,肿瘤缩小。近距离放射治疗的两种主要类型是临时性和永久性。如果采取临时的近距离放射治疗,医生会插入一个传输设备,如支气管镜,以尽可能接近肿瘤。临时近距离放射治疗通常采用高剂量的放射性物质,可以治疗几分钟。一旦治疗结束,放射源就会被移除。如果采取永久性近距离放射治疗,医生会植入放射性粒子,这些粒子会留在体内,释放出低剂量的持续辐射。随着时间的推移,粒子会变得越来越弱,逐渐停止释放辐射。近距离放射治疗可以与体外放射治疗或其他癌症治疗一起使用。然而,近距离放射治疗优于体外照射的优点包括在较短的时间内获得更高、更有针对性的辐射剂量,以及减少附近正常组织受到辐射的照射。

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