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认识肺癌

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医疗动画文字记录:你或你关心的人可能被诊断出患有肺癌。这段视频将帮助你更多地了解肺癌以及它是如何影响你的身体的。肺是胸腔内的一对呼吸器官。你吸入氧气,所有细胞都需要氧气。然后呼出一种叫做二氧化碳的废气。这种气体交换发生在肺部的肺泡中。肺癌是一种正常的肺细胞变成称为癌细胞的有害异常细胞的疾病。癌细胞增殖形成簇状肿瘤。这些肿瘤生长并破坏健康的肺组织。肺癌可能会通过血液或淋巴液扩散到身体的其他部位,淋巴液是一种有助于从身体中收集无用废物的天然物质。肺癌主要有两种类型。小细胞肺癌和非小细胞肺癌。它们以癌症细胞的种类以及它们在显微镜下的样子命名。非小细胞肺癌是最常见的肺癌类型。小细胞肺癌是最具侵袭性的肺癌类型。它生长和传播得更快。肺癌最重要的危险因素是吸烟。其他危险因素包括吸二手烟、接触氡、有肺癌家族史、感染艾滋病病毒、接触有害化学物质(如石棉)和空气污染。肺癌在早期可能没有症状。当出现症状时,可能包括慢性咳嗽、胸痛、呼吸困难、咯血、声音嘶哑、食欲不振、吞咽困难、体重减轻、乏力以及面部或颈部肿胀。如果你患有肺癌,医生需要确定疾病的分期或进展,以帮助你制定治疗计划。非小细胞肺癌分期多。在隐匿期,癌细胞只在肺液中发现。在0期,气管内壁发现异常细胞或癌细胞。到1期,发现一个小肿瘤。在2期,癌细胞已经生长或扩散到附近的淋巴结或非肺组织。在3A期,肿瘤已经生长到任意大小。此外,在胸部同侧的淋巴结或附近的器官中发现肿瘤。3B期与3A期相似。但在3B期中,肿瘤出现在胸部另一侧的淋巴结。肿瘤也可能发生在锁骨上方的淋巴结。在4期,肿瘤可能出现在双肺。此外,肿瘤可能已经扩散到远处的器官。小细胞肺癌的分期较少。在局限期,肿瘤只在胸部的一侧被发现。在扩散期,癌症已经扩散到胸部的另一侧或远处的器官。当你被诊断患有肺癌时,保持与医生和癌症护理团队交流。
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