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认识结直肠癌

ID: ANH17197chis
医学动画文字记录:大肠癌称为结直肠癌。大肠的各部分分别为结肠、直肠和肛管。大多数结直肠癌起源于结肠息肉(小细胞团块)。大多数息肉是良性的,这意味着它们含有异常细胞,这些细胞不是癌性的,也不会扩散到身体其他部位。它们仅存在于肠壁内的一层薄薄的组织中。如果异常细胞转变成癌细胞,息肉就会变大并侵入大肠壁。如果不治疗,癌细胞会进入血液并扩散到附近的淋巴结。随着时间的推移,这些细胞可以播散到其他器官并形成更多的肿瘤。以下因素是发生结直肠癌的高风险因素:有结直肠癌家族史、患有结肠息肉、年龄在 50 岁或以上、肥胖、吸烟、缺乏运动、饮酒过多或患有使结肠发生炎症改变的疾病,如溃疡性结肠炎或克罗恩病。结直肠癌的症状可能包括排便习惯改变,如腹泻、便秘或大便变细、大便中带鲜红色或深色血液、感觉大便不尽、腹痛、腹胀或痉挛、不明原因的体重减轻、乏力或非常疲倦,以及呕吐。非常重要的是,这些症状可能是由结肠癌以外的其他疾病引起的。也有可能患有结肠直肠癌但无任何症状,尤其是在早期阶段。如果你对结直肠癌有任何疑问,请咨询医生。

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