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认识卵巢癌

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医疗动画文字记录:你或你关心的人可能被诊断出患有卵巢癌。这段视频将帮助你了解这种疾病以及它会如何影响你。女性有两个卵巢。它们在子宫的两侧。卵巢是产生和储存卵子的生殖系统的一部分。卵巢也产生雌激素和孕激素。有两条输卵管连接在子宫上。卵子从卵巢排出后,通过其中一条输卵管进入子宫。卵巢靠近腹膜。腹膜是腹腔的内层,覆盖了腹腔和盆腔的大部分器官。大多数卵巢癌开始于卵巢外层,称为上皮性卵巢癌。当细胞生长失控时,就会发生癌症。异常细胞继续分裂,并可能扩散到身体的其他部位。生殖细胞肿瘤是卵巢癌的另一种类型,从产生卵子的细胞开始。间质瘤是第三种类型,开始于卵巢的支持组织,即产生激素的部位。许多因素可能会增加患上皮性卵巢癌的风险。一个风险因素是年龄。一半的卵巢癌发生在63岁或以上的女性。肥胖是另一个风险因素。身体质量指数(BMI)大于等于30的女性患病风险更高。35岁以后生第一个孩子或从未生过孩子的女性,患病风险也更高。绝经后单独服用雌激素的激素疗法也可能会增加患病风险。有卵巢癌和某些其他癌症的家族病史也会增加患病风险。卵巢癌可能没有早期症状。卵巢癌的症状通常很模糊。当症状出现时,可能包括骨盆或腹部疼痛、胀气、月经不规则、总感觉需要排尿、便秘和背痛。然而,在大多数情况下,这些症状不是由卵巢癌引起的。如果你患有卵巢癌,医生需要确定卵巢癌的亚型、分级和疾病的分期或进展,以帮助你制定治疗计划。每个级别都是根据癌细胞在显微镜下与正常卵巢细胞相比的不同程度来划分的。级别越高,癌症越严重。卵巢癌的分期都是基于从癌细胞产生到发生扩散的距离。1期,意味着癌症只在卵巢内。2期,癌症已经扩散到其他器官,但它仍然在骨盆内。3期,癌症已经扩散到骨盆以外的腹膜或腹膜后的淋巴结,或两者都有。4期,意味着癌细胞已经扩散到腹膜外的器官。当你被诊断为卵巢癌时,请与医生和癌症护理团队交流。
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