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病毒性脑膜炎

ID: ANH12083chis
医学动画文字记录:病毒性脑膜炎是一种主要发生在5岁以下儿童的感染性疾病。当某些病毒侵入覆盖和保护大脑和脊髓的组织——脑膜时,就会发生这种情况。脑膜分为三层。真正接触大脑和脊髓的那层叫做脑膜。蛛网状的中间层称为蛛网膜。最外层最坚硬的一层叫做硬脑膜。脑脊液也保护大脑和脊髓,在脑膜之间流动,并在大脑表面流动。病毒性脑膜炎最常见的病因是一种叫做肠病毒的病毒。其他可引起脑膜炎的病毒包括腮腺炎病毒、麻疹病毒、疱疹病毒,和各种通过吸血昆虫传播的病毒,如蚊子和蜱虫。引起脑膜炎的病毒可能通过受感染昆虫的叮咬传播。然而,该病毒最常见的两种传播方式是通过粪便污染,这可能发生在如厕或换尿布后不洗手的情况下,以及通过接触感染者的体液,如打喷嚏或咳嗽。一旦进入人体,病毒会自我复制并进入血液。病毒通过血液传播到大脑,在那里它们越过血流和大脑之间的边界进入脑脊液。病毒在脑脊液中传播并感染脑膜细胞。当免疫系统开始对抗感染时,脑膜会发炎。婴幼儿病毒性脑膜炎的症状包括发烧、易怒、食欲不振和昏迷不醒。年龄较大的儿童和成人的症状包括发烧、头痛、颈部僵硬、对光敏感、嗜睡、难以醒来、恶心、呕吐和食欲不振。病毒性脑膜炎的症状与细菌性脑膜炎相似,但通常不那么严重。医生可能会推荐扑热息痛或其他非甾体类抗炎药治疗发烧和头痛。对于由一种疱疹病毒引起的脑膜炎,医生可能会开抗病毒药物,如无环鸟苷。大多数引起脑膜炎的病毒都没有治疗方法,不过大多数人会在两周内自行康复。

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