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法洛四联症的治疗

ID: ANH19226chis
医学动画文字记录:法洛四联症的治疗是外科手术,以帮助解决以下四个心脏缺陷。室间隔缺损(VSD)是指两个心室之间的壁上有一个孔。当主动脉直接位于室间隔缺损上方时,就会发生覆主动脉。这意味着主动脉与左右心室相连,而不是正常情况下只与左心室相连。在肺动脉瓣狭窄中,肺动脉主动脉狭窄,肺动脉瓣不能完全打开。右心室肥厚是指右心室壁比正常情况下厚。法洛四联症可以在出生后不久或婴儿期用开胸手术修复。手术可能包括暂时和彻底的修复。孩子可能还没有准备好马上进行完全修复。在这种情况下,可以放置一个临时修复,如分流或支架,直到完全修复完成。这两种修复都能增加流向肺部的血流量,提高输送到身体的血液中的氧气水平。在分流手术中,医生会打开胸壁,在主动脉的分支和右肺动脉之间放置一根叫做分流管的管子。分流将为血液进入肺部吸收氧气提供另一条通道。在支架手术过程中,一种叫做导管的管子将通过一个小切口插入腿部的血管。心脏病专家将使用导管将一种叫做支架的装置放置在肺动脉狭窄的区域内。这样可以让更多的血液流向肺部。当孩子足够强壮时,就可以完成一个完整的修复了。在手术过程中,可通过以下方法修复肺动脉狭窄缺损。如果肺动脉主动脉太小,就要用补片加宽。如果肺动脉瓣太小,可以用补片加宽或更换。如果多余的心肌阻碍了肺瓣膜以下的血液流动,医生会切除这些肌肉组织。这些修复将改善缺氧的血液从右心室流向肺部。因此,血液将获得足够的氧气以满足身体的需要。为了修复室间隔缺损,医生会用一块贴片盖住这个孔。这种补片可以防止缺氧血液和富氧血液混合。因此,只有富含氧气的血液才会从主动脉从左心室流向人体。随着时间的推移,固定肺动脉狭窄和闭合室间隔缺损也将固定右心室肥厚。由于右心室不需要那么辛苦地工作来泵血,右心室的壁将恢复到正常的厚度。如果孩子在临时修复后仍有分流,则在手术结束时将其移除或剪断。同样,如果孩子植入了支架,它也会被移除。要了解更多关于法洛四联症的治疗方法,请咨询医生。

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