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气管食管瘘修补术(儿科)

ID: ANH13091chis
医疗动画文字记录:气管食管瘘是一种食管与气管异常连接的出生缺陷。食管是食物从口腔进入胃的管道。气管是空气从嘴和鼻子进入肺部的管道。气管在怀孕的第六周形成。这里你可以看到最终形成消化系统所有器官的管道。气管和肺是从消化管的一部分长出来的,消化管的一部分最终会变成食管。由于未知的原因,食管和气管可能在这段时间内异常生长和分离。食管末端可能出现盲袋,间隙缺失,且异常狭窄。这种自然的身体通道的缺失或狭窄称为闭锁。食管和气管也可能有异常的连接,称为气管食管瘘。这是新生儿最常见的气管食管瘘。上食管的末端是一个盲袋。下食管与气管相连。这是一个严重的问题,因为胃内容物可以反流到食管,通过瘘管进入气管和肺。瘘管还会导致新生儿呼吸困难,因为空气可以绕过肺部进入胃。在气管食道瘘修补术之前,要先建立静脉通路。婴儿可以通过静脉注射抗生素来减少感染的机会。婴儿将被进行全身麻醉,这将使其在整个手术过程中处于睡眠状态。经口腔进行气管插管到喉部,以帮助婴儿在手术中呼吸。医生会在婴儿的胸部开一个切口,通常是在右侧。通过切口,医生将肺移到一边,观察气管和食管。在确定气管食管瘘后,医生将瘘口与气管的连接用缝合线慢慢缝合,然后将连接从气管上断开。瘘管与食管的连接也将被切断,瘘管将被移除。接下来,医生将在上食管的末端开一个切口,打开上食管。然后缝合上食管和下食管。最后,医生会在胸部插入手术引流管,并用缝合线缝合切口。手术后,婴儿将继续使用气管插管,直到他们恢复到可以自己呼吸。婴儿将被送往新生儿重症监护病房进行监护。医生会给予婴儿止痛药。婴儿可能会继续通过静脉注射抗生素治疗。婴儿出院时,他们可以吃足够多的东西来维持他们的体重,这可能是在两周或更长时间后。

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