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周围神经病变

ID: ANH11054chis
医学动画文字记录:周围神经病变是当损伤或疾病损害周围神经系统时发生的一种常见情况。周围神经起源于大脑和脊髓,延伸到皮肤、肌肉和组织。周围神经系统以电脉冲的形式在身体各部位和大脑之间传递重要信息。周围神经有三种类型。运动神经调节身体骨骼肌的运动。感觉神经将感觉,如热、振动、触觉和疼痛传递到大脑。自主神经调节内部器官和腺体的活动。每个神经都是由许多相互联系的细胞组成,这些细胞被称为神经元,以闪电般的速度传输脉冲。这种不断的交换可以让大脑对身体的重要输入做出反应。然而,神经损伤破坏了这一关键环节,导致周围神经病变。单个神经的损伤,称为单神经病变,通常是由损伤或重复压力引起的。单神经病变的一个例子是腕管综合征。手腕神经的反复撞击可能会导致手、手臂和肩膀的刺痛、疼痛和无力。多神经累及,称为多神经病变,更为常见。损伤通常从离中枢神经系统最远的神经开始,并以对称的方式发展。多神经病变可由糖尿病和其他全身性疾病、感染或接触有毒物质引起。三种神经类型中的一种或全部都可能受到影响,而且症状各有不同。感觉神经的损伤是糖尿病的特征,可导致手脚麻木,对温度的感知能力减弱,对疼痛不敏感或对疼痛过度敏感。多发性神经病也可能对运动神经造成损伤,从而导致肌肉无力、抽搐和疼痛。自主神经损伤的常见症状包括对热不耐受、膀胱失控、胃肠紊乱、呼吸障碍和心率障碍。一般来说,周围神经病变的治疗目的,是治疗潜在的病因并缓解症状。如果你有单神经病变,可能会使用减轻疼痛的药物进行治疗,并物理治疗以保持肌肉力量,或通过手术释放压缩或困住的神经。如果你有多神经病变,医生会治疗潜在的疾病,以防止进一步损害神经。医生可能会推荐止痛药来缓解症状。如果患有多神经病变并伴有感觉损伤,医生可能会建议穿矫形鞋来防止足部损伤。

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