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关于你的心脏病

ID: ANH16180chis
医学动画文字记录:心脏病是一种由心肌血流阻塞引起的疾病,如果你最近曾因心脏病发作而接受治疗,本视频将帮助你了解这种疾病及其治疗方法。心脏是一个肌肉发达的器官,它向血液中输送身体所需的氧气和营养物质。心脏的主要泵血室是左心室。当左心室收缩时,它将富含氧气的血液通过一个叫做主动脉的大动脉输送到身体各处。与主动脉相连的是冠状动脉。血液从主动脉流过冠状动脉,为心肌提供氧气和营养物质。在心脏病发作期间,通过其中一条冠状动脉的血流可能严重减少或完全阻塞。血流量减少可能是由冠状动脉中一种叫做斑块的脂肪物质的积聚引起的。如果斑块被破坏,血凝块就可能形成,并严重恶化狭窄,或导致突然的完全阻塞,使沿动脉流动的血液停止。冠状动脉的堵塞阻止了血液中的氧气和营养物质到达由动脉提供营养的心脏部分。结果,该区域的心肌开始死亡。心脏部分肌肉的损伤被称为心脏病发作。它也被称为心肌梗死(MI)。医生可能会建议一种手术来帮助打开阻塞物,改善受损区域的血液流动。手术可能是冠状动脉成形术。在冠状动脉成形术中,球囊端导管在阻塞的冠状动脉内膨胀打开它。这个过程可能包括放置支架来帮助撑开动脉。这通常是一个薄金属网作为支架。重要的是要知道,虽然支架打开了你的心脏动脉,但它不会帮助你体内其他动脉中的斑块积聚。或者你可能做过冠状动脉旁路搭桥手术。冠状动脉搭桥术是一种外科手术,通过身体的静脉或其他动脉绕过冠状动脉的阻塞区域。在你离开医院之前,医生很可能会给你开几种药物。主要有以下几种:口服抗血小板治疗有助于防止血小板粘附在一起,形成新的血块。如果你有支架,这种药物有助于防止血栓在支架内形成。你可能还会服用一种叫做β-受体阻滞剂的药物,帮助降低心率和血压。如血管紧张素转换酶(ACE抑制剂)、血管紧张素受体阻滞剂(ARB)和钙通道阻滞剂等药物也能在必要时降低血压。医生可能会给你开他汀类药物和低脂饮食来降低胆固醇。这些药物通过减少肝脏中胆固醇的含量来起作用。它们还能帮助肝脏将胆固醇从血液中排出。如果他汀类药物效果不好或有严重的副作用,医生可能会给你开非他汀类药物。它们以不同的方式降低你的胆固醇。即使你感觉好些了,也要按照医生的处方服药。除非医生允许,否则不要停药。

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